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Before Covert Bailey became rich & famous writing the Fit of Fat series & recommending the Healthrider, he was teaching dental teams to teach preventive dentistry. Lou & I hosted a three-weekend seminar in Carnelian Bay in '73 for 35 dental teams on the 21-Objective Preventive Dentistry Information teaching concept Covert had developed. We were so impressed with the results that we wrote a manual that we used to build the most successful preventive dental practice within driving distance. Covert was so impressed with Tahoe & with Lou's cooking, that he credits us with his move to Tahoe.

Here are a few segments of our manual, which we wrote for our team to teach our clients. the results in the 70's were amazing! This is the basis of my un-published best-selling book "How to Achieve Dental Health while Continuing to Live Unhealthfully", sort of an owner's manual for one's mouth. Since it's remained unpublished since '73, we'll probably publish it on the InterNet. Anyhow, here's some PDI:

Why the 21 objectives?--

If you are to help people learn this stuff, YOU've gotta be comfortable with it. The "objectives" originated in the early seventies from Covert Bailey and a group of dentists and educators in the Bay Area. They concluded that people needed to know all these concepts in order to initiate a LASTING behavioral change.

The usual alternative--

Before this system was devised, dental offices TOLD patients to brush & floss & how to do it. We see the results of this method every day in the mouths of new clients to our office: a very small percentage actually take care of their mouths. Most just brush and floss for a week or so after their hygiene visit, motivated out of fear or "duty to mother hygienist" & the day or two before their next dental visit and are praised for their efforts while their teeth are dissolved by caries, their gums fall off and their excellent restorative dentistry must be redone due to recurrent dental disease.

1--WHY PDI ???

Indeed!! Why should we go to all this trouble to learn all the stuff in this booklet (& lots more) and try to help people learn it? It ain't easy and since it is not what people are used to, EVERYONE seems to resist -- at least a little -- at first. Everyone fears change and tends to avoid it and most of the stuff in this booklet urges BIG changes (a little at a time, 'tho).

Here's why I decided on doing it this way.

In 1970 Lou & I attended a 2-day seminar by Jack Anderson, a Minnesota pedodontist and a strong advocate of preventive dentistry. Lots of dentists at that time CLAIMED to be strong advocates of preventive dentistry. Jack was strong enough that he offered to provide all dental treatment for his clients free of charge on two conditions:

1) They KEPT up & practiced his preventive methods (he had objective tests to check on this periodically).

2) They had their mouths restored to best possible health first.

So he charged his clients for restoring their teeth to optimal health & for his prevention & recall programs & once they were controlling their dental problems themselves, he did their restorative treatment at no charge. The result was that within a few years he had to open a branch office 200 miles away 'cause he'd prevented all the dental disease within a 100 mile circle. The population there was static, families lived there for generations, never moving. Tahoe's population is not static--a third of our clients move away each year & new ones join our practice.

In '72 Lou & I built the present practice at North Shore Tuesday thru Friday & practiced in another dentist's office at South Shore Saturday thru Monday for 9 months. That office was NOT preventive oriented. About half of what that dentist did was redoing his own restorations that had failed due to continued dental disease, removing teeth he'd previously restored due to perio problems, replacing "filings" that have leaked &/or cracked their host teeth with crowns, replacing those crowns with bridges, those bridges with partial dentures, those partials with full dentures. In short, he was practicing supervised neglect & allowing his clients to gradually become dental cripples at great expense.

That was very frustrating to watch. THAT makes dental burnout & all sorts of physical & mental health problems for the dental team operating that way. So we don't do it that way. Since '72 we've seen many outstanding successes in our patient/clients. When our team's prevention program is working efficiently, our people can attain unexcelled levels of oral health & seeing THAT over the years makes it all worth while! So........the MAIN purpose of the PDI effort is to help our client/patient toward better dental health thru his/her own efforts. But that's not the ONLY important purpose.

Equally important is the establishment of the CARING, TRUSTING RELATIONSHIP between our team (mostly you) and the client AND increasing the person's "oral awareness" or dental "IQ" so he/she'll WANT what's best for him/her (& want us to provide it).

It's generally true that people require a change in what they BELIEVE before they produce a HABIT change & they must change their underlying PHILOSOPHY (the "why's") before they change those beliefs. HOWEVER, sometimes we can give SOME people a few "how-to's" and SOMETIMES see a little change.

Since we CAN'T "teach", but only help people learn; & since this only happens when the person likes us 'cause we care, then our main aim with the PDI opportunity is to establish the caring relationship with the client. -- They don't CARE HOW MUCH WE KNOW 'til they KNOW HOW MUCH WE CARE. Showing 'em how to outgrow their need for US demonstrates that we really care. some people, like ME, believe that our clients sense the relationship TEAM has with each other & won't build a meaningful relationship with us if they sense that we don't like each other. Therefore, our efforts to maintain team relationship full time.


Back in '73-4 Seija Janzen was our Preventive Dentistry Therapist. She got amazing results helping people change their behavior & achieve lasting improvements in their overall health & particularly their dental health! AMAZING RESULTS! She was able to help old people who originally claimed they didn't care about themselves anymore, young people who didn't seem to understand what the rest of us were talking about, teenyboppers who couldn't relate to anyone, religionists who figured god would handle all their problems for 'em.....drug-crazed hippies who couldn't even focus on reality ten seconds in a row. No, she couldn't help everyone, and I never saw her walk on very deep water. One person in particular stands out in my memory. Paul Fox was a former drug-crazed hippie who had wall-to wall caries, teeth rotted off at the gum line, red, bleeding, puffy gingiva and no money to buy the $6,000 treatment need at that time to rebuild his mouth. Seija did not give up on him. Thru her magic he motivated himself to try brushing & flossing, he eventually altered his high sucrose diet.

We did very minor caries removal, some application of cements over deep lesions, most of which fell off in the years before we eventually rebuilt his mouth. He never could afford even the hygiene care that he should have received. but when we finally did start rebuilding his mouth with cast restorations, tooth by tooth, his gingiva was healthy, his caries had not only not progressed, but the teeth had actually REMINERALIZED--the carious tooth surfaces we'd never even cleaned up were HARD, FIRM & HEALTHY!

For many years I assumed that Seija just had a natural gift for teaching. She did. But she also had a secret she never shared with us. She would have shared it if she'd known it herself. More likely, she DID share it & I was not ready to hear it. Years later, after listening to Dr. Doug Young's Communication tape for about the seventh time, he told me her secret:

"Information alone has never and never will change anyone's behavior (If info alone changed behavior, none of us would smoke, none of us would eat sucrose, ethanol or caffeine, we'd all be aerobically fit from exercising regularly, we'd all always get enough sleep & we'd all wear our seatbelts anytime we were in a moving car. Probably none of us does all this stuff right, even tho we HAVE the information.).

Information in the context of a relationship MAY help someone change their behavior." Example: You have a problem & ask advice of a casual acquaintance you don't know very well. (S)he gives you an answer, you clarify the answer & think about it & decide, 'no, I don't think that's for me".

Then you go to a person who you KNOW cares about you, someone you trust or have known a long time or perhaps someone you know loves you & ask for the advice & receive exactly the same advice you'd gotten from the first person. It sounds different & you say 'Yeah, that's great, I'm gonna act on that!"

The relationship makes the difference. That's it.

She spent time getting to know that person BEFORE ever talking about teeth or gums or sugar or floss. Those people knew she cared about them before any "teaching" started. Then, what happened was "learning", not teaching.

1. "Relate the person's problem or potential problem to the prevention concept"
Real Objective in #1: You & your patient/client get to know each other as friends! Then be sure (s)he knows & understands our preventive philosophy.

Minimum Requirement - The client should be able to relate his, or family's or friend's dental problem (real or felt) -to the prevention concept.

2. "Diseases caused by plaque--relate to prevention"
Minimum Requirement - The client should be able to state approximately what percent of dental problems is caused by plaque, name the two major categories of dental disease caused by plaque, and give two to three ramifications of each: 90-98% of dental problems, dental disease and dental bills are caused by plaque and are 100% preventable. 90-98% of dental disease is caries (cavities) and periodontal (gum) disease. Types and results of periodontal disease: gingivitis, recession, bleeding gums, bone loss, pyorrhea, trench mouth, NUG, Vincent's infection, tooth loss. Two to three examples in client's wording OK.

Since about '90, my constant study has helped me appreciate that what we've been taught to call "disease" is a misH-mash of causes, effects, signs & symptoms and that real "disease" is really a HEALING PROCESS conducted by our body-mind to & regain maintain health. Since normal people will not understand that, the rest of this PDI booklet will probably consider the symptoms to be the "disease" so that normal folks will unnerstan. So, just ignore this footnote!

Additional Information--

"The direct cause of periodontal disease is the adherent colonized microbial mass found on the tooth surface at the gingival crest, in the sulcus, and in the periodontal pocket with its associated bordering communities of motile and non-motile bacteria, protozoa, leukocytes, drifting desquamated cells, as well as other varieties of microscopic life living or dead. This is called the microcosm."--Arnim, S. S., "Microcosms of the human mouth", J Tenn Dent. Assn, 39:3-28, Jan '59.

--No matter what the age of onset, a little gingivitis is neither normal nor harmless. A little gingival bleeding is abnormal and may be the first sign of impending problems. Bleeding on probing Y our client's report of "pink toothbrush" are signs of more serious problems. (Charles F. Rau, "Recognizing early clinical signs of periodontal disease", Quintessence International 3/77 pg 51).

--Another "disease" of the mouth caused by bacterial plaque is halitosis. "Bad Breath", while surely better than no breath at all, is a powerful motivator for people to change whatever's causing it. TV & the rest of the media emphasize sweetness of breath as a major sexual attraction & we ought to make use of this in helping people get healthier.

"Breath disease" can be caused by sinus problems, gastro-intestinal problems, various foods & drugs, and infections of the pulmonary system. 90% of the time, the foul odor is due to volatile sulfur compounds (methylmercaptan (CH3SH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced by the bacterial plaque.

The tongue is the major source of CH3SH & H2S. Brushing & eating are effective tongue cleaning methods & reduce bad breath symptoms (Tonzetich, J. and Ng, S. K/ "Reduction of malodor by oral cleansing procedures"' Oral Surg 42:172-181 Aug 1976.).
The other 2-10% of dental problems:

1. Trauma (through accident or faulty occlusion) - can cause both endodontic and periodontal problems (Including occlusal trauma in the 2-10% of non-plaque caused of dental problems may be excessive over-simplification, since unfavorable forces resulting from less-than-ideal jaw relationships contribute massively to periodontal breakdown and dental destruction (abfraction & attrition). We're doing it here to help our clients focus in bacterial plaque.)

2. Many systemic diseases - can cause dental problems (diabetes, leukemia, cancer);

3. Local non-plaque infections (yeast, mold, virus, other parasites.

4. Systemic drugs (antibiotics, metabolism-altering preparations, drugs that depress salivary flow, alter composition of saliva, chemotherapy);

5. Topically applied agents (aspirin, eugenol);

6. Chemical or mechanical irritants (poorly fitting prostheses);

7. Congenital abnormalities, etc.

8. Surgery or radiation treatments of salivary glands.

We have very thick Oral Pathology books dealing with these 2-10%, if someone's very interested.

Tongue Cleaning--Yes, I brush my tongue daily as part of cleaning my oral orifice, including the back part, which also stimulates a gag reflex that supposedly squeezes debris from the tonsillar pillars & lets it be digested by my stomach acids. If I were going to invest in a special instrument for cleaning my tongue, I'd buy a cheap tablespoon, one that's so cheap it doesn't have polished edges). Since '71, I've delegated most of my decisions re techniques & products to Drs Rella & Gordon Christensen & their staff of researchers & panel of 2-300 practicing dentists. For over a quarter century, these people, whom I know personally have been rigidly honest & incorruptible & have created Clinical Research Associates (CRA), the most respected & trusted dental evaluation organization on the planet. I dunno why they'd devote an entire 2-page spread to tongue cleaners, but I'm submitting it to Bob for publication. CRA conclusions: they all probably work, & cost between $3-5 ($1-3 to dentists), benefits unknown--similar to my own conclusions.

3. "Draw or visualize etiology diagram"

Minimum Requirement - The client should be able to illustrate the relationship of plaque to his body (host), what he eats and his oral hygiene through the diagram:

Food Habits Oral Hygiene




Acids Toxins Sulfur Compounds


Body (host):

teeth gums saliva


cavities Periodontal "Breath

Disease disease"


4. "What is plaque? (3 constituents)"

Minimum Requirement - The client should be able to list descriptive phrases for each of the three primary components of plaque:

a. organized or colonized bacteria

b. congealed or gelled saliva--protein precipitate (mucopolysaccharide)

c. food in solution--chemical (microscopic) nutrients of food debris

Additional Information - Plaque can be defined as a tenaciously adherent, gelatinous mass composed mainly of bacterial colonies (bacteria form about 70% of plaque -- Gram positive facultative cocci form 28% of the cultivable bacterial population of plaque. There are in addition 24% gram positive facultative rods, 18% gram positive anaerobic rods, 13% anaerobic gram positive cocci, 10% gram negative anaerobic rods and 6% gram negative anaerobic cocci. There are also numerous filaments, fungi, and other bacterial forms, water, desquamated epithelial cells, white blood cells, and food residues. Because the deleterious effects of plaque are due to its bacterial content, it's definition can be simplified: a collection of bacterial colonies tenaciously adherent to the surface of the teeth.

While we're completing construction of the Preventive Dentistry part of this site, here's some great dental nutrition information lifted with great appreciation and respect from the International Natural Hygiene Society website , followed by parts of the nutrition section #'s 16 & 17 from the Preventive Dentistry Information Manual used in our dental office for a quarter century:


Are you on a good diet? The best way to find out may be through your teeth (if you have been on the same diet for several years). Already the dentist Weston Price knew this - he traveled all around the world in the 30's to look at primitive peoples teeth, and thereby health. Like this:

Tooth decay - your diet is deficient.

Dental health - your diet & general health is ok.
Below are some quotes about teeth and diet selected by Dr. Stanley S. Bass.

About Tooth Decay & Diet

In the summer of 1933, [we made] contact with large bands of Indians who had come out of the Pelly mountain country to exchange their catch of furs at the last outpost of the Hudson Bay Company... they have remained as nomadic wandering tribes following the moose and caribou herds in the necessary search to obtain their foods.

The rigorous winters reach seventy degrees below zero. This precludes the possibility of maintaining dairy animals or growing seed cereals or fruits. The diet of these Indians is almost entirely limited to the wild animals of the chase. This made a study of them exceedingly important. The wisdom of these people regarding Nature's laws, and their skill in adapting themselves to the rigorous climate and very limited variety of foods, and these often very hard to obtain, have developed a skill in the art of living comfortably with rugged Nature that has been approached by few other tribes in the world.

The sense of honor among these tribes is so strong that practically all cabins, temporarily unoccupied due to the absence of the Indians on their hunting trip, were entirely unprotected by locks; and the valuables belonging to the Indians were left in plain sight...The condition of the teeth, and the shape of the dental arches and the facial form, were superb. Indeed, in several groups examined not a single tooth was found that had ever been attacked by tooth decay ... Careful inquiry regarding the presence of arthritis was made in the more isolated groups. We neither saw nor heard of a case in the isolated groups. However, at the point of contact with the foods of modern civilization many cases were found including ten bedridden cripples in a series of about twenty Indian homes. Some other affections made their appearance here, particularly tuberculosis which was taking a very severe toll of the children who had been born at this center... The suffering from tooth decay was tragic. There were no dentists, no doctors available within hundreds of miles to relieve suffering.

The physiques of the Indians of the far north who are still living in their isolate locations and in accordance with their accumulated wisdom were superb. There were practically no irregular teeth, including no impacted third molars, as evidenced by the fact that all individuals old enough to have the molars erupted had them standing in position and functioning normally for mastication.

Where the Indians were using the white man's food tooth decay was very severe. . . In the new generation, after meeting the white civilization and using his foods, many developed crooked teeth, so-called, with deformed dental arches. . .

Weston Price, DDS: Nutrition and Physical Degeneration

The Director of the National Museum in Iceland says that it is definitely established that during 600 years, 1200 to 1800 in Iceland, there were no dental cavities. The foods they ate were milk and milk products, mutton, beef and fish. They ate no carbohydrate. The only exception to this was a little moss soup in the summer, but this was a rare "fun food" of little nutritional importance. Two Indian tribes reveal the same thing.

The prehistoric Indians of California were vegetarians, unlike most folks of that period, and they had tooth decay. In contrast, the Sioux Indians lived on buffalo meat and were devoid of cavities. The Pueblos worshipped the Corn God, but he was not grateful. They have the most wretched teeth of all the American Indian tribes. They live on corn, squash and beans. The Laplanders, who ate mostly reindeer meat during the 18th century, rarely had cavities. Modern laps have a decay rate of 85% of their teeth.

William Campbell Douglass, MD: The Milk of Human Kindness
The Masai are tall and strong... For their food throughout the centuries they have depended very largely on milk, meat and blood, reinforced with vegetables and fruits. In the Masai tribe, a study of 2,516 teeth in eighty-eight individuals distributed through several widely separated manyatas showed only four individuals with caries. These had a total of ten carious teeth, or only 0.4 per cent of the teeth attacked by tooth decay. In contrast with the Masai, the Kikuyu tribe are characterized by being primarily an agricultural people. Their chief articles of diet are sweet potatoes, corn, beans, and some bananas, millet, and Kafir corn, a variety of Indian millet. The women use special diets during gestation and lactation. The Kikuyus are not as tall as the Masai and physically they ore much less rugged... A study of 1,041 teeth in thirty-three individuals showed fifty-seven teeth with caries or 5.5 per cent. There were 36.4 per cent of the individuals affected.

Weston Price DDS: Nutrition and Physical Degeneration

Last, but not least, sugar consumption is the cause of bone loss and dental decay. Tooth decay and bone loss occur when the precise ratio of calcium to phosphorus in the blood varies from the normal ratio of 4 parts phosphorus to 10 parts calcium. At this proportion, all blood calcium can be properly utilized. Dr. Melvin Page of Florida demonstrated in numerous studies that sugar consumption causes phosphorus levels to drop and calcium to rise. Calcium rises because it is pulled from the teeth and the bones. The drop in phosphorus hinders the absorption of this calcium, making it unusable and therefore toxic.

Thus, sugar consumption causes tooth decay not because it promotes bacterial growth in the mouth, as most dentists believe, but because it alters the internal body chemistry.

Orthodox nutritionists admit that sugar causes tooth decay, although they may be mistaken about just why this is so, but their warnings to avoid tooth decay by limiting sweets are disingenuous. Most people would be willing to pay the price for bad teeth as long as they did not have to stop eating sugar. After all, teeth can be repaired or replaced. But poor teeth are always the outward sign of other types of degeneration in the body, degeneration that cannot be repaired by mechanical means.
Sally Fallon: Nourishing Traditions

INHS email group:

Today I went to the dentist, after 3 years of postponing it - and the verdict was "no holes"!! Absolutely unbelievable - last time in 2000 I had a bill of $5000 (pre-insurance) due to many severe holes - and the time before that in 1997 I had a bill of a couple of 1000's as well. (Yes I know I should go every year, but I just have this barrier - and I didn't expect that many holes - earlier I usually only had one or two.) The only difference is that I was an almost-vegan for a decade plus ending in 2000, and since then have been a paleo-hygienist. I have always been good at brushing and flossing so that hasn't changed. Perhaps I am now reaping the rewards of all those eggs I have been eating (and craving) since 2000, (for a while I was up to 8 a day) and the other animal foods I have been eating. It can't be just a fluke (why didn't I have at least a small hole?), there must be a reason. In that case - thnx Dr. Bass for convincing me this was the way to go!! I hope healthy teeth means better health in general - isn't that what the dentist Weston-Price meant .... Anna Nelson, 3-04

I realized another thing that I added to my diet in the last 2 years. Sea vegetables! I eat nori, and dulse a lot now. I make nori rolls 2 times a week and I often throw dulse in my salads. I still drink reverse osmosis water though. I believe adding the dulse and nori along with more greens like kale, chard and spinach is why I no longer get cavities! Another thing I've noticed is that since I've added these things my hair and nails are much stronger. My teeth even feel stronger too. ... I must have been missing minerals. Iain 3-04

Really interesting - goes hand in hand with what Steve said about mineral-rich soils and improved teeth:

In 1984 I visited Fiji and stayed six months. There is a remarkably fertile and small region on the main island there, the Sigatoka River Valley, where the soils are alluvial and refreshed every few years with freshly-ground rock flour, happens when the Sigatoka River floods in a cyclone. .... When I ate the food from the Sigatoka Valley over half a year my teeth got tighter in my jaw; Isabelle's fingernails hardened, our whole sense of well-being improved. Steve Solomon, 3-04

Section 16 from the PDI Manual:

What You Eat--

16. "Why is sucrose so bad compared to foods? (Dentally)

Minimum Requirement - The client should be able to give three reasons why sucrose is linked to dental disease over any food:

a. Sucrose solution is QUICKLY absorbed by plaque.

b. Sucrose molecule energy is just right for bacterial needs.

c. Both parts of the molecule are efficiently used.

d. We eat so much of it at the wrong times.

Additional Information

A. Sucrose penetrates plaque in 1/2 sec and saturates it with enough sugar to cause 20 minutes of acid and toxin production -- probably due to stearic hindrance, etc. This is faster than any other "plaque food" can penetrate.

B. The "free energy of hydrolysis" (delta F0) of the split of sucrose into glucose and fructose is just the right quantum of energy (6,800 small calories) to make ATP. The plaque bacteria need this energy for the active absorption of nutrients -- eg. Strep Mutans.

C. Sucrose is a disaccharide -- meaning it's made up of a molecule of fructose plus a molecule of fructose -- 2 sugars. The bacteria in plaque have an enzyme that splits the sucrose into fructose and glucose INSTANTLY. The fructose produces IMMEDIATE energy and acid by products 0.6 sec after sucrose intake (0.5 sec to penetrate and 0.1 sec for chemical reaction!!). This continues for about 20 min. after each exposure!

The glucose is stored by the bacteria for long-term energy needs. This enables the bacteria to survive for long periods when you're not feeding them well. Plants store this same glucose within their own cells as STARCH (long chains of glucose). Animals store it for energy as GLYCOGEN (long chains of glucose) inside, too -- eg in the liver. Bacteria, such as those in plaque, store these long chains of glucose for energy outside their bodies -- cells -- in the form of dextrans, levans, furans, etc. These are the things that make plaque STICKY and adherent to teeth and supply long-term energy storage at the same time. When plaque has this mass of dextrans, etc. then it's "fully organized".

By the way, other common disaccharides are maltose, made up of 2 glucose molecules from which beer is fermented & lactose, made up of a molecule of glucose plus a molecule of galactose -- it's the sugar found in all mammalian milk except sea lions. Plaque can break maltose and lactose into the simple sugars -- monosaccharide -- also, but MUCH slower. Therefore they're not as dangerous as sucrose.

POLYSACCHARIDES are sugars made up of MANY molecules of simple sugars. The "energy storage molecules" mentioned above -- dextrans, starch, and glycogen -- are examples. Cellulose is also polysaccharide, made of lots of sugar molecules -- used by plants and carpenters for construction. All these sugars, from simple monosaccharide, such as glucose (also known as dextrose in England), to disaccharides, such as dreaded sucrose, to complex polysaccharides such as starch, glycogen and cellulose are also carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates have that name 'cause they're made up of carbon (carbo-) plus water (hydro-). Plants form carbohydrates by using the sun's energy to combine water and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air. Oxygen is a byproduct of this reaction. Animals use the oxygen from the air & breakdown the carbohydrates from their food to produce water & the energy needed to survive. Carbon dioxide is the waste product of this carbohydrate metabolism. Incidentally, at night, plants become animals, also consuming oxygen & producing carbon dioxide.

d. Not too long ago, about the time our grandparents were born, Americans ate about 7 pounds of sucrose per year. We now eat about 120 pounds per person per year. MOST of this (about 70%) is not purchased by us in bags but is purchased by food processors & ADDED into food we buy, most obviously in soda pop, candy, etc. but also in hot dogs, mayonnaise, catsup, cereals, breads, etc.

The average American is eating about 1/3 of a pound of sugar per day. Since I eat practically none, someone must be eating 2/3 pound per day--or more.

I suspect that with this system of adding sugar to nearly everything we buy & adding extremely well-produced ads to everyone's sensory input via TV, radio, etc. we've produced a generation of people who don't even know what food tastes like without sucrose. Most of the breakfasts eaten by American kids are little more than food-flavored candy (these processed cereals range from 20-60% sugar!!

As you'll see from objective #17, the FREQUENCY with which we eat sugar is far more important than the QUANTITY. The availability of packages of sugar in tablet form (Tic-Tacs, Lifesavers, Jujubes, Certs, etc.) makes it quite convenient to pop a dose of sucrose every 10-20 minutes, assuring 24 hr/day plaque saturation & acid & toxin production.

16A. Why is sucrose so bad for the rest of the body (systemically) compared to foods?

Minimum Requirement - there ain't no minimum requirement 'cause some people feel we oughtta concern ourselves only with teeth & gums & not play "real doctor", so this one, probably the most important part of the PDI, rates only a "16A" heading rather than it's own heading.

Additional Information -The main point here is that sucrose is not a food. It's a drug. It is devoid of ANY nutrient value or food content other than empty calories. It is processed & concentrated from foods, just as arsenic can be processed & condensed from apricots. Sucrose acts on the body as a drug, depleting the body's stores of vitamins & minerals (especially the B vitamins) & artificially raising the body's blood glucose levels QUICKLY & unphysiologically. Just as the bacteria in plaque can instantly break sucrose into glucose & fructose, so can the gut. This instant presence of large amounts of glucose in the stomach is quickly absorbed into the blood stream, causing transient hyperglycemia, which signals the pancreas to produce insulin--generally in excess--to lower the blood glucose levels to tolerable levels.

Since the blood level is usually lowered too much. This results in transient hypoglycemia, the accompanying "low" feeling and another sugar "fix" is desired. Caffeine has the same effect, artificially raising the blood sugar level & triggering the same yoyo effect on the endocrine system. If a "fix" is not forthcoming, the adrenal cortex is called into action by the excess of insulin and causes release of glycogen (stored glucose) from the liver to balance the insulin. This curtails pancreatic activity. This oscillation between overwork and dead stop is apparently a big factor in creating a diabetic.

Sucrose intake is also largely responsible for the production of grossly, not-so-grossly obese people, who have higher incidence of most degenerative diseases, heart diseases, etc.

Sucrose also raises the cholesterol & triglyceride levels, predisposing to arterial diseases. (by blocking cholesterol metabolism.)

On the emotional side (by the way, I strongly recommend Sugar Blues--it's emotional rather than scientific in approach, but effective) if breakfast consists of coffee with sugar, a sweet roll, grape juice & cereal with sugar the blood sugar level does not remain at 75-95 mg% as it's supposed to. It MAY soar as high as 200 mg%. (Mg%, by the way, is simply how many mg--1/1000 gm- of a substance--glucose in this case--are present in 100 mg of blood). With this elevated blood sugar level one may feel a burst of energy and really work hard for an hour or two. The brain cells are so saturated with sugar that one is actually on a "high". After an hour and a half, tho, this 200 mg% starts down--the big deceleration begins--nervousness sets in and possibly a bit of a headache. It is an uncomfortable feeling emotionally to have one's blood sugar level DROP no matter how high it is after dropping. "Bout time for the morning coffee break--and how about another donut? The old blood sugar starts to climb, we feel better--but what's going on inside of us? A drug effect.

High sucrose intake produces hyperactive kids (difficulty with sleep, Jekyll/Hyde personalities--great mood swings, always ticklish--can't ignore unimportant things). Depriving kids who are normally "holy terrors" of sucrose generally calms them to near normal levels within 2 weeks.

Michael J. Walsh, SCD, in Metabolic Aspects of Stress:

"Foods are chosen not for their denotations of the nutritive value, but rather for their social and cultural connotations of refinement, richness, softness, sweetness, deliciousness, and group acceptance.

Another reason sucrose is bad systemically is that it has NO nutritive value at all (other than empty calories) -- no vitamins, minerals, etc., yet it USES the body&Mac226;s stored nutrients in its metabolism. It actually TAKES various B vitamins just for the body to process the sucrose!

16B. What's the "Indirect-Direct" Effect of Sucrose on the Teeth & Gums?

Minimum Requirement--Again-no minimum requirement but the microscopic tubular fluid flow as described by Steinman might well be explained to anyone who might be interested, particularly food-&-health-conscious folks.

Additional Information--I've made an attempt at explaining this concept in paragraph 2 on page 5A under Objective #3. More info is available in our library. THE "Indirect-Direct" label comes from the effect that the sugar (sucrose) in the diet is DIRECTLY affecting the teeth & gums INDIRECTLY, thru the circulatory system of the body. This effect takes place regardless of the route of administration of the sugar. (Sucrose taken IV, without passing thru the mouth, can cause cavities & gum disease by reversing the fluid thru the dentinal tubules!!)

17. Frequency vs. Quantity (20 minutes theory)

Minimum Requirement -The client should be able to compare frequency vs. quantity of sucrose ingestion on plaque-acid production according to the 20-minute theory:

a. Plaque bacteria will produce acids & toxins for about 20 minutes following exposures to ANY quantity of sucrose.

b. Once the plaque is saturated with sucrose, more sucrose during that 20-minute period will not cause additional aid or toxin production."

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